✅ Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present pdf ✈ Author Harriet A. Washington – Heartforum.co

Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present From The Era Of Slavery To The Present Day, The First Full History Of Black America S Shocking Mistreatment As Unwilling And Unwitting Experimental Subjects At The Hands Of The Medical Establishment Medical Apartheid Is The First And Only Comprehensive History Of Medical Experimentation On African Americans Starting With The Earliest Encounters Between Black Americans And Western Medical Researchers And The Racist Pseudoscience That Resulted, It Details The Ways Both Slaves And Freedmen Were Used In Hospitals For Experiments Conducted Without Their Knowledge A Tradition That Continues Today Within Some Black Populations It Reveals How Blacks Have Historically Been Prey To Grave Robbing As Well As Unauthorized Autopsies And Dissections Moving Into The Twentieth Century, It Shows How The Pseudoscience Of Eugenics And Social Darwinism Was Used To Justify Experimental Exploitation And Shoddy Medical Treatment Of Blacks, And The View That They Were Biologically Inferior, Oversexed, And Unfit For Adult Responsibilities Shocking New Details About The Government S Notorious Tuskegee Experiment Are Revealed, As Are Similar, Less Well Known Medical Atrocities Conducted By The Government, The Armed Forces, Prisons, And Private InstitutionsThe Product Of Years Of Prodigious Research Into Medical Journals And Experimental Reports Long Undisturbed, Medical Apartheid Reveals The Hidden Underbelly Of Scientific Research And Makes Possible, For The First Time, An Understanding Of The Roots Of The African American Health Deficit At Last, It Provides The Fullest Possible Context For Comprehending The Behavioral Fallout That Has Caused Black Americans To View Researchers And Indeed The Whole Medical Establishment With Such Deep Distrust No One Concerned With Issues Of Public Health And Racial Justice Can Afford Not To Read Medical Apartheid, A Masterful Book That Will Stir Up Both Controversy And Long Needed Debate


10 thoughts on “Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present

  1. says:

    This book is incredibly hard to read in that it s so harrowing sometimes your stomach just turns as you turn the pages However, it is masterfully written, immensely researched, and should be mandatory reading for, probably, the entire planet.


  2. says:

    This Book Is Explosive I found this book about a year ago in the huge Barnes and Noble in Union Square It was somewhere on the bottom shelf in the African American section The fact that I, even if accidentally, came across this book shows my dedication to finding a good book The title is striking, and as knowledgable as I am about Black History, the assertions laid out in this book shocked me Harriet Washington has written an extensively researched book that rebuts the negative assumptions made about Black Americans on how well or not they maintain their health Almost from the moment Black Americans entered this country they have been subject to some of the most dangerous and sadistic medical experimentations, the likes of which Washington describes in detail She sources actual medical journals and government texts For a majority of the history of these illicit practices doctors, scientists, and politicians spoke freely about experimentations because for much of the history of Black people being in America it was illegal for them to read and no one ever thought they d be able to The book is long The print is small, single spaced and every word is used with weight The cynic in me couldn t help but think of all experimentations that went undocumented The most inhumane experiments described I dare not recount the details here Some of the topics that sparked the most heat during our humble book club was experimentations on female slaves that propelled modern gynecology, the sometimes theft and often times misuse of black cadavers in teaching institutions and science labs, the experimenation of known fatal chemicals on young African American children some as young as 6 months old, and the current one sided biochemical war going on in Black communities around the country Harriet Washington has written a monumental documentation of the seedy aspects of the medical world chronicling centuries of abuses on the black community that have brought many in the medical and scientic fields fame, fortune and respect This book should be required reading for all Americans if these things have happened within just one group, they certainly can happen to others This book is a long read, and one that may cause you to lose sleep, but the subject matter is so important to the history of medicine and ultimately healthcare in the world as we know it.


  3. says:

    Washington is a former ethics fellow at Harvard Medical School She catalogs a shameful, centuries long tradition in American medicine of using African Americans in medical experiments I knew vaguely that had happened, and happened in living memory, but she provides details Gory, gory details I m glad I read this book, but I wish it had had the benefit of a hard edit Stephen King said to authors that you have to kill your babies, and I often felt like Washington couldn t bear to do that The New York Times went through some of the factual assertions in the book and found them wanting, which is disappointing It also would have benefited by honing down the marginal portions For example, she tells us the story of Ebb Cade, a truck driver who was brought to a hospital near death after a terrible accident in 1945 216 Doctors, under contract with the U.S Atomic Energy Commissioner, she says, believed he was going to die and injected him with radioactive material so they could test how it would affect his soon to be dead body Only he didn t die he walked out and had very nasty side effects Horrible story, and the specific words she attributes to the doctors are shameful But she didn t present particularly persuasive evidence that this project s experimental subjects were picked on the basis of race I don t think she was writing for me I don t know that she s pro life, but phrases she uses like abortion on demand 313 are often code for that As someone who thinks the ability to control when and if you have a child is essential for autonomy, that s like fingernails on a chalkboard Similarly, discussing the now mostly discarded use of sterilization in child abuse cases, she writes Forced contraception use in response to allegations of child abuse is punishment, not therapy, because it does not protect the existing children, as counseling would It delays, not prevents, births for the duration of the Norplant sentence In any event, preventing a child s birth is a draconian method of protecting it from abuse 211 That statement makes me roll my eyes I haven t seen our courts use forced contraception out here I ve worked a lot of parental termination cases, and the idea that counseling protects existing children is, well, unlikely in many circumstances More irking to me is the implication that preventing the child s birth is about protecting some specific child from abuse presumes that there is some child out in the ether cued up for birth That makes no sense to me It implies some inchoate child has a right to be conceived She also lost me when she was discussing HIV She seemed so wedded to her thesis that African Americans were the special targets of abuse by our medical establishment that she felt compelled to minimize how gay men with HIV were also treated poorly 330 31 Both can just be terrible I didn t expect her to discuss the country s shameful response to HIV when it was perceived as a disease in the gay community, but she seemed to be going out of her way to be dismissive Her discussion of prison experiments including interviews with survivors was chilling and compelling I will remember her descriptions of a man whose skin had basically been removed piece by by for a long time Her recap of the Tuskegee Syphilis experiment was very well done Her discussion of grave robbing of African American cemeteries very compelling An interesting follow up to The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, which my group read a few months a go A much disciplined text, but in both, the author s perspective was sometimes intrusive.


  4. says:

    In 1915, Dr Harry J Haiselden heralded the first wave of U.S eugenics when he gained fame and wealth by exploiting the evil legacy of the black motherOn November 12, 1915, he announced to newspapers that he allowed the ailing but viable newborn of his patient Anna Bollinger to die in Chicago s German American Hospital because he would have gone through life as defective Between 1915 and 1918, Haiselden killed five other babies, drawing fawning attention from the press each time Practicing negative eugenics very publicly, Haiselden encouraged parents and other pediatricians to follow his example by killing or allowing the deaths of the genetically inferior Parents began openly to recruit doctors to kill their children who were born with birth defects, and doctors came forward with their own proud confessions of infanticide.When he decided to make a film to popularize his eugenic ideals, starring himself, it became a hit, making him a wealthy movie star The film was The Black Stork It begins with the story of a white, wealthy, well born slave owner who, in a moment of inebriation, is seduced by his vile, filthy black servant. When I was a child, I was gaslit with such implications that since I wasn t being physically sexually abused in an obvious manner, I had nothing to complain about Protest against this of any sort was met with the insistence that of course they had to treat me badly in order to prepare me for the real world , as I certainly couldn t expect to survive in the real world if I felt entitled to people treating me humanely, regardless of my circumstances of age, intelligence, physical constitution, and personal appearance Well Here is this real world everyone s been talking about, albeit sordid and strange and terrifyingly consistent than the average parent would wield in front of their children s faces when it came totalitarian pedagogy The fact that my childhood imaginings that once kept me in line pale in the face of such truths is a boon rather than a disappointment, for it s given me an ironclad constitution for research and bred in the bone ethics that trusts the ideologies on top as far as it can throw their idolaters I don t give a fuck how comfortable the status quo makes you You either dislike being a cannibal, or you don t, and pulling a Cronus isn t going to save you forever Black bodies on anatomists tables, black people s skeletons hanging in doctors offices, and the widespread display of purloined black body parts constituted the same kind of warning to African Americans as did the bodies of lynched men and women left hanging on trees where black people would be sure to see them, or cut up as souvenirs of racial violence. In January of 2013, I made the decision to never conduct scientific research for money Bear in mind this was from the perspective from Bioengineering, not the pre med track, so I have no idea what kind of ethical bearings those who wish to become doctors get in the course of their university education However, the beauty of the pre med is the applicability from a wide variety of majors, thus making it possible for an English major to self study in the requisite scientific courses and do well enough on the MCAT to get into medical school After that, how much of that grueling education is medicine, and how much of it is ethics The reason of all the people I knew for making the pre med way was money, money, money, so if their classroom doesn t make an explicit effort to make it clear that medicine with compromised ethics is a monster that only the sadists excuse, all they ll come out with is money, money, money, and the power to wield that money in and below and around the laws that bind their creed The US may have a streak of anti intellectualism, but I ll let you make the decision whether that s worse than medical researchers kidnapping homeless people and foster children and HIV babies for deals with the devil that were never about the greater good This essentially utilitarian argument presents an ethical balance sheet, with the savage medical abuse of captive women on one hand and countless women saved from painful invalidism on the other.However, such an argument ignores the ethical concept of social justice, and these experiments violated this essential value because the suffering and benefits have been distributed in an unfair way, leading to distributive injustice In this case, the most powerless group, which is also a racially distinct group and a captive group, is the group upon which doctors inflicted harm for the grater good Another, privileged group enjoys the benefits but shares near the pain nor the risks Thus the moral unacceptability is clear. It d be so easy to turn this into a critique of capitalism Money needs to be made, so the slaves will be cannibalized to serve the masters Money needs to be made, so the impoverished need be to cannibalized to serve the masters Money needs to be made, so the imprisoned should be cannibalized to serve the masters Money needs to be made, so citizens of third world countries are available to be cannibalized to serve the masters People who demand I offer them a workable alternative to capitalism think themselves entitled to putting responsibility for a think tank effort onto single person in response to my desire that human sacrifices no longer be rendered acceptable In response to them, I question their religion, because the only thing saving belief from extinction is some measure of social humanity In response to them, I question their knowledge of science, for the majority of studies were not only human experimentation, but were riddled with so many scientific flaws that reliance on the conclusive results would likely than not leave those would be benefactors dead In response, I question their faith that the horrors detailed in these pages will never happen to them by way of skin color, or economic security, or intelligence, or sanity The beauty of eugenics and capitalism is both are hierarchies that always require a bottom tier, and exterminating that bottom for the sake of a better top will only push those middle liners down, a new generation become an antithesis to the concept of those worthy of survival Via Operation Paperclip, the U.S government supplied American hospitals and clinics with seven hundred Nazi scientists.A common apology for experimental abuse insists that we should not apply present day medical ethics to the medical behaviors of yesterday, which were governed by less enlightened medical standards fro everyone, not just African Americans However, ethical strictures did govern the behavior of nineteenth century physicians Before the mid twentieth century, these binding ethical standards were not enforced by federal laws, but consisted of medical oaths, professional codes, and rules governing clinical conduct within medical schools, hospitals, and other institutions These rules were carefully adhered to in cases of white patients but were routinely broken for African Americans.Yale Law School ethicist Jay Katz, M.D., avers that in the eyes of many American researchers the Nuremberg Code was a good code for barbarians but an unnecessary code for ordinary physicians Beginning this, I quipped about a curiosity to discover from whence the Nazis drew their inspiration Ending this, I m tired, cause it s all right there, laid out in spades History always makes everything a hell of a lot complicated, because often than not, the argument you re making only exists because of its history of abuse People say fear of autism is the only reason anti vaccinators have and I, looking at the CIA experimentation funded at home and abroad say no, that s not right Others say Planned Parenthood is only capable of doing good with its proving for abortion and I, looking at its eugenicist creator and original goals of involuntary sterilization say no, that s not right either The human population is burgeoning, but that doesn t mean we ignore the pockets that have been carved out for purposes of genocide or the military industrial complexes that require three earths to sustain their current rate of consumption Medical advances are nice, but if you re willing to be treated by people who would gleefully forget the difference between therapy and research if they didn t live in fear of hoards amateur journalists descending on hospitals and scientific centers, camera phones and Wikipedia articles at ready, you re just a meal that s currently off limits Medical theories of criminality are important because medicine has long claimed a special provenance over criminality The very frequent reference to a prison as a site of rehabilitation and treatment is the sine qua non of modern penology.Leaving aside for a moment the egregious social fallout of selecting only black and Hispanic boys, this racial selection also created serious scientific error When only one ethnicity is considered in an experiment to elicit general information about a heterogeneous population, an unacknowledged set of socioeconomic variables are introduced.Silence governs those risk factors that cannot be laid to a blame the victim paradigm that emphasizes patients high risk behaviors. The kind of shifts that would fulfill the adage of learning from history in order to avoid the doom of repeating it would require reparations for slavery and holistically ethical learning and all sorts of things that will never happen so long as society defends to death its playing to the tune of your money or your life Those with scientific training that hide behind the excuse that the public who volunteers as subject material will never understand it aren t scientists, but piss poor socioeconomic abusers who aren t qualified enough to perform research due to a lack of ability in being able to explain every aspect to all and sundry All and all, this work is an exact reason why the willful pretense that there is no confluence between science and the arts will forever entail that children are trained from the cradle to be sadists, because what is consent What is worth What can history tell us about why the world is acceptably wielded as some vague juggernaut to scare people into line, up until the point someone deconstructs the world and attempts to publish their findings of things nightmarish and unquestioned than the metaphor itself South Africa s systematic murders via biological agents are important to this book because so many of the scientists involved in crafting South Africa s racist bioterror were Americans In fact, the science of the apartheid could not have existed without the avid participation and guidance of a handful of American scientific renegades.During World War II, prisoners had been commonly used as research subjects, and after the war, the United States was the only nation in the world continuing to legally use prisoners in clinical trials. People who aren t African Americans or Africans or in anyway associated with the concept of black can afford to read this because the process doesn t dehumanize via proxy for 500 pages, especially in the case of those who gulped down The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks and all its white author glory There are instances of broad spectrum eugenics involving mental illness and poverty that touch upon other demographics, but intersectionality is the goal of this work, and you can t have that without black women If you can t do it because you have a weak stomach, don t become a doctor If you won t do it because it doesn t interest you, don t go to a doctor It s alright for medicine to cost than the human beings it sacrificed to better itself can afford, but for it to cost a recognition of those human beings Absurd Wouldn t you agree W hen the desperately ill are confronted with extreme measures and heroic experimental ventures, they risk confusing research with therapy, and so do their doctors Patients rarely understand that physicians conducting the research are primarily interested in the research, not an individual patient s survival and quality of life.It is not necessary to waive informed consent in order to provide the unconscious with treatment Laws already exist that permit doctors to offer the best available treatment to patients who are comatose, unconscious, underage, or in other ways unable to consent to treatment But these laws do not extend to experimentation, and rightly so We now know, where we could only surmise before, that we have contributed to their ailments and shortened their lives Oliver Clarence Wenger, M.D., U.S Public Health Service, 1950


  5. says:

    It is very rare that I give a book 5 stars but this one earned it This was a deeply disturbing and chilling book Normally I do not read this type of book because I do not have time to invest in it but I took time this time It was well researched and presented an awful picture of how so many people were injured and killed in the name of science and in order to justify medical testing and experimentation I have studied this topic in the past in regards to early settlers in the deep south, primarily the creole and cajun slaves in Louisiana and the tortures they endured at the hands of their French owners This book only reinforced the stories I had already found and added credibility to the truth that so many people try to shovel under the rug Good book.


  6. says:

    This was the most disturbing history book that I ve read in a looong time First it discusses the horrible medical experiments conducted on slaves in antebellum days, some of which make those Nazi experiments look like nothing at all Then it moves into the experiments and graverobbing that free African Americans were vulnerable to, due to poverty and racism Then it wraps up with the examples of racist medical practices in the modern day plus medical abuses practiced in prisons, which are disproportionately populated by African Americans Not a fun read by any means but an interesting side of American History that I had only been partially aware of previously.


  7. says:

    This book is mandatory reading.


  8. says:

    Washington s book is encyclopedic than argumentative, though she makes overtures in both directions Medical Apartheid is an exhaustive look at how prejudice has played out in the sphere of medicine and healing, exclusively focusing on Western medicine s dark interaction with the subjected and forgotten enslaved and poor She also attempts to establish causation between a current African American iatrophobia fear of medicine and the many abuses of African Americans at the hands of American medicine, and her strategy is the well intentioned but somewhat tiring beat the reader over the head approach.It s sad that there is so much evidence to support Washington s claim However, as the book goes on, Washington s zeal to incorporate further weight to the burden of proof causes her to grasp at reductive arguments and split hairs For me, this shift began with her examination of experimentation on prison populations Washington downplays experimentation that occurred before African Americans made up the shockingly disproportionate percent of the prison population, asserting a black and white racial narrative in the place of the complex narrative of American incarceration though race certainly plays a part.In a subject that is so rife with unquestionable evidence in support of her claim, I was disappointed that Washington resorted to juking stats and leaving out complicating details.


  9. says:

    In this book, the author has compiled and analyzed a vast amount of research to make the case that racist practices toward African American people from slavery onward, in the name of science and medicine, have created an atmosphere of distrust among African Americans toward the medical profession As a result of this distrust, and often fear, this group of people may not be getting proper medical care when necessary I won t go into a major discussion here, but I thought the author did a fine job in terms of research and presentation I m not a scientist, nor am I conversant enough in the topic to judge her research, but this book really opened my eyes to some less than professional and less than ethical practices I must say that I m not surprised earlier I read the book Bad Blood about the syphillis experiments at Tuskeegee but that was probably the extent of my knowledge on the topic Washington s book makes that study seem like only the tip of the proverbial iceberg I have to say that sometimes she was a bit repetitive, but not enough to distract from the main points of her work I truly hope her work does some good I d recommend it to people who are interested in the topic, especially people like myself who have only a limited knowledge, or to people who want to add yet another dimension to their understanding of African American history.


  10. says:

    This took forever for me to read I started in March oh wow It took forever to finish this book and not because it was incredibly hard for me to read, but because I found it a little redundant The book is well written and Harriet A Washington is very clear throughout it I really appreciated that and I feel that I have learned a lot from Medical Apartheid I recommend Medical Apartheid to those who are interested in learning about the history of medical experimentation.